International Association of Healthcare Professionals Medical Conferences
International Association of Healthcare Professionals Medical Conferences

Diabetes and its Complications:  A Challenge in the Changing World

In the Proceedings of the International Medical Conference on Advances in Medical Practice and Education in the Changing World, London, 15 – 18 August 2015, London, UK



Diabetes and its Complications:  A Challenge in the Changing World by Maria Jana Kingsley-Godwin


Maria Jana Kingsley-Godwin informed conference that the objective of her study was to examine the epidemiological issues of diabetes in the global community. She carried this study out by a systematic review of the literature and economic evaluation.


Conference was told that Maria carried out a systematic literature review of online databases such as Medline and EMBASE, visiting specialist library sources, journals, magazines, theses, grey literature, various published and unpublished materials and expert opinions.


The methods used by Maria involved questions on various issues of diabetes which were formulated in order to undertake the critical review.  The questions included: the causes of diabetes, epidemiology, prevention, prevalence, risk factors and cost of treatments for the different types of diabetes commonly found in the community. She told conference of the systematic review of the literature she performed; evaluating online databases, printed journals and articles, online journals, books, published and unpublished materials, theses, magazines, grey literature from 1966 to 2015, and expert opinions on various clinical capacities.  Overall, 2,934 sources that met the search criteria were identified. The data obtained was ranked in order of superiority and evidence grading levels in order to reach the best data for each question asked.


Conference was then made aware of the results. Diabetes was described as a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high in various texts studied. The general results found were:


  • Three main types of diabetes were reported in literature:



  • Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. In the UK, around 90% of all adults with diabetes have type 2.


  • Gestational diabetes, which is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop a high blood sugar level.


Maria advised conference that there are other reported types of diabetes which include; pre-diabetes, latent autoimmune diabetes and diabetes mellitus.


Maria went on to inform conference that there are 3.9 million people living with diabetes in the UK. This is more than one in 16 people in the UK who has diabetes (diagnosed or undiagnosed). This figure has more than doubled since 1996, when there were 1.4 million.  By 2025, it is estimated that five million people will have diabetes in the UK. Maria also told conference that many more people have blood sugar levels above the normal range, but not high enough to be diagnosed as having diabetes. In addition it is very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as early as possible because it will get progressively worse if left untreated, therefore it is recommended that people should visit their doctor as soon as possible if they have symptoms, such as; feeling thirsty, passing urine more often than usual, or feeling tired all the time.


In summary Maria told conference that further results of the review included subjects such as; diabetic emergencies, complications, epidemiological data, a discussion of the size of diabetes problem, prevention, management, lifestyle, medications, surgery, support and research.


In conclusion Maria emphasised that the results, from the analysis already set out can be seen as:


  • Diabetes is a condition where there is too much glucose in the blood because the body cannot use it properly. This happens because the pancreas does not produce any insulin, or not enough, or the insulin it does produce is unable to work properly. This is a problem because insulin is the key that unlocks the door to the body’s cells so glucose can enter them. So with diabetes, the body is unable to use glucose as fuel and instead glucose builds up in the blood.



  • Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections.  Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications with or without insulin.  Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar. Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM. 



  • As the number of people with diabetes grows worldwide, the disease takes an ever-increasing proportion of national health care budgets.


  • Without primary prevention, the diabetes epidemic will continue to grow. Even worse, diabetes is projected to become one of the world’s main disablers and killers within the next twenty-five years.


  • Immediate action is needed to stem the tide of diabetes and to introduce cost-effective treatment strategies to reverse this trend.



Correspondence: Maria Jana Kingsley-Godwin, Author and Medical Writer, London, England, UK Website:



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