International Association of Healthcare Professionals Medical Conferences
International Association of Healthcare Professionals Medical Conferences

Cardiovascular Diseases and the Effects of their Co-Morbidities

In the Proceedings of the International Medical Conference on Progress in Medical Practice and Education:  Innovations for the Future and Beyond, London, 21 – 25 August 2015, London, UK



Cardiovascular Diseases and the Effects of their

Co-Morbidities by Maria Jana Kingsley-Godwin



Maria Jana Kingsley-Godwin informed conference that the objective of her study was to analyse the management of cardiovascular diseases and their co-morbidities. She carried this study out by a systematic clinical review of the literature.


Conference was told that Maria carried out a systematic literature review of online databases such as Medline and EMBASE, and that she visited specialist library sources, journals, magazines, theses, grey literature, various published and unpublished materials and expert opinions.


The methods used by Maria involved formulating questions on the different issues about cardiovascular diseases and their comorbidities which were then used to undertake the critical review.  The questions included: the types and causes of cardiovascular diseases, epidemiology, prevention, prevalence, research activities in the area, risk factors and treatments issues for the different types of the common and emerging infectious diseases in the community. She told conference of the systematic review of the literature she performed; evaluating online databases, printed journals and articles, online journals, books, published and unpublished materials, theses, magazines, grey literature from 1966 to August 2015, and expert opinions on various clinical capacities.  Overall, 3, 853 sources that met the search criteria were identified. The data obtained was ranked in order of superiority and evidence, grading levels in order to reach the best data for each question asked.


Conference was then made aware of the results. Maria stated the key findings of the study were:

  • Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause.
  • An estimated 17.5 million people died from CVDs in 2012, representing 31% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, an estimated 7.4 million were due to coronary heart disease and 6.7 million were due to stroke.


  • Over three quarters of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Out of the 16 million deaths under the age of 70 due to non-communicable diseases, 82% are in low and middle income countries and 37% are caused by CVDs.
  • Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing behavioural risk factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol using population-wide strategies.
  • Deaths, at a given age, from CVD are more common and have been increasing in much of the developing world, while rates have declined in most of the developed world since the 1970s.
  • [Coronary artery disease and stroke account for 80% of CVD deaths in males and 75% of CVD deaths in females.
  • Most cardiovascular disease affects older adults. In the United States 11% of people between 20 and 40 have CVD, while 37% between 40 and 60, 71% of people between 60 and 80, and 85% of people over 80 have CVD.
  •  The average age of death from coronary artery disease in the developed world is around 80 while it is around 68 in the developing world.
  • Disease onset is typically seven to ten years earlier in men as compared to women.
  • People with cardiovascular disease or who are at high cardiovascular risk (due to the presence of one or more risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia or already established disease) need early detection and management using counselling and medicines, as appropriate for the co-morbidity issues.



In conclusion Maria emphasised that the analysis showed that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term that describes a disease of the heart or blood vessels.  Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack).  Other CVDs are stroke, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, congenital heart disease, endocarditis, aortic aneurysms, and peripheral artery disease.  Coronary heart disease is responsible for more deaths than any other health condition, both in the UK and worldwide. Comorbidities associated with cardiovascular Diseases have complicated disease management and increased the healthcare costs in various communities Worldwide.



Correspondence: Maria Jana Kingsley-Godwin, Author and Medical Writer, Blackpool, England, UK Website:



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